Top 25 driver, vehicle, and hazmat violations of 2019

By: Daren Hansen

Publication: Transportation Regulatory Alert

Date Posted: 08/31/2020

Top violations of motor carrier safety & hazardous materials regulations

Speeding and broken lamps continued to be top concerns last year during roadside enforcement of commercial vehicle safety regulations.

Overall, there were 3.47 million roadside inspections performed on commercial trucks and buses in 2019, down from 3.52 million in 2018.

Being familiar with those violations can help drivers and motor carrier avoid them.

The following tables list the top violations of driver- and vehicle-related motor carrier safety and hazardous materials regulations as cited during roadside inspections in 2019, as well as:

  • The percentage of those violations that resulted in an out-of-service (OOS) order for the driver or vehicle (there were nearly 1 million OOS violations in all); and
  • The severity points assigned to each violation in the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) system.

Also included is a list of the top violations categorized as “other,” consisting primarily of violations of state and local laws. These violations generally have no effect on CSA scores.

Top 25 Driver Violations of 2019

Rank

Code

Description

Violations

OOS

CSA Points

1

392.2S

Speeding

128,577

0.02%

1-10

2

391.41(a)

Driving without a valid medical certificate

87,206

12.8%

1

3

392.2C

Failure to obey traffic control device

62,181

0.02%

5

4

395.8

Log violation: general/form and manner

59,864

1.1%

1

5

392.16

Failing to use seat belt

58,834

0.01%

7

6

395.8(a)

No logs (of proper type) in driver’s possession

56,122

92.6%

5

7

395.8(e)

False log(s)

42,385

66.3%

7

8

383.23(a)(2)

Operating a CMV without a CDL

40,916

98.6%

8

9

392.2LV

Lane-restriction violation

36,712

0.03%

3

10

395.8(f)(1)

Driver’s log not current

27,384

1.6%

5

11

395.22(h)(4)

No supply of blank logs when using ELD

19,822

0.04%

1

12

392.82(a)(1)

Using a hand-held mobile phone while driving

18,631

0.04%

10

13

395.22(h)(2)

No ELD instruction sheet

16,684

0.03%

1

14

395.22(g)

Portable ELD not mounted in a fixed position visible to the driver

16,433

0.04%

1

15

395.3(a)(2)

Driving beyond 14-hour duty period

15,345

32.1%

7

16

395.3(a)(3)(ii)

Driving beyond 8-hour limit since the end of the last 30-minute rest break

13,512

0.31%

7

17

391.11(B)(5)

No valid driver’s license/endorsement for vehicle being operated

13,248

95.5%

8

18

395.22(h)(1)

No ELD user’s manual

12,587

0.03%

1

19

395.3(a)(3)

Driving beyond 11-hour driving limit

11,246

25.2%

7

20

395.24(d)

ELD cannot transfer logs electronically

11,092

1.1%

0

21

383.51(a)

Driving with a suspended CDL

10,797

81.4%

1-8

22

395.8(k)(2)

Failing to retain previous 7 days’ logs

10,642

89.8%

5

23

391.11(b)(2)

Non-English-speaking driver

10,360

0.26%

4

24

392.2FC

Following too close

10,216

0.01%

5

25

395.24(c)(2)(iii)

Failing to add shipping document number to ELD

9,589

0%

1

Top 25 Vehicle Violations of 2019

Rank

Code

Description

Violations

OOS

CSA Points

1

393.9

Required lamp(s) not operable

458,540

7.3%

2

2

396.17(c)

Operating a CMV without periodic inspection

185,200

0.02%

4

3

393.11

No/defective lighting/reflective devices

177,025

2.7%

3

4

396.3(a)(1)B

Brakes (general)

172,350

51.7%

4

5

393.47(e)-(f)

Brake(s) out of adjustment

169,281

0.02%

4

6

396.5(b)

Oil and/or grease leak

155,580

9.1%

3

7

393.95(a)

Fire extinguisher violation

141,005

0.01%

2

8

396.3(a)(1)

General inspection/repair/maintenance

135,069

14%

2

9

393.45(b)(2)

Brake hose/tubing chaffing and/or kinking

127,062

13%

4

10

393.75(c)

Tire tread depth less than 2/32 of an inch

120,839

8.6%

8

11

393.9TS

Inoperative turn signal

120,422

43.8%

6

12

393.45

Brake tubing and hose connections, splicing, and/or adequacy

111,302

29.1%

4

13

393.53(b)

Defective or no automatic brake adjuster

92,533

0%

4

14

393.78

Windshield wipers inoperative/defective

90,374

0.5%

1

15

393.75(a)(3)

Tire flat and/or with audible air leak

86,150

96.8%

8

16

393.55(e)

Malfunctioning ABS lamps on trailer

74,677

0.02%

4

17

393.95(f)

Warning devices missing/insufficient

70,151

0.02%

2

18

393.48(a)

Inoperative/defective brakes

66,669

19.8%

4

19

393.9H

Inoperative head lamps

61,082

1.3%

6

20

393.60(c)

Windshield damaged or discolored

52,052

0.2%

1

21

393.43

No/defective/improper breakaway or emergency braking

48,304

91%

8

22

393.9T

Inoperative tail lamp

45,587

11.4%

6

23

393.207(a)

Axle positioning parts defective/missing

30,541

60.7%

7

24

393.9BRK

Inoperative brake lamps

29,745

44.8%

6

25

393.75(a)(2)

Tire tread and/or sidewall separation

29,089

15.8%

8

Top 25 Hazardous Materials Violations of 2019

Rank

Code

Description

Violations

OOS

CSA Points

1

177.834(a)

Package not secure in vehicle

4,720

95.4%

10

2

107.620(b)

No copy of USDOT hazmat registration number

3,045

0%

0

3

177.817(e)

Shipping paper accessibility

2,742

0.2%

3

4

177.817(a)

No shipping papers (carrier)

2,379

75.6%

3

5

172.516(c)(6)

Placard damaged, deteriorated, or obscured

2,404

0.9%

5

6

172.504(a)

Vehicle not placarded as required

2,338

49%

5

7

177.823(a)

No placards/markings when required

1,957

41.1%

5

8

172.502(a)(1)

Failing to provide carrier required placards

1,792

16.9%

5

9

172.602(c)(1)

Maintenance/accessibility of emergency response information

1,473

0%

3

10

172.600(c)

Emergency response information not available

1,306

0.2%

3

11

172.200(a)

Offering HM without preparing a shipping paper

906

44.8%

3

12

173.24(b)(1)

Release of HM from package

890

95.2%

10

13

172.328(d)

Failing to mark manual remote shutoff device

823

0%

5

14

177.801

Accepting/transporting HM not prepared properly

787

21.9%

2

15

172.202(b)

Failing to enter basic description of HM in proper sequence

754

0.7%

3

16

180.415(b)

Cargo tank test or inspection markings

739

0%

7

17

172.400(a)

Package/containment not labeled as required

717

2.9%

5

18

172.602(a)

Emergency response information missing

715

0.1%

3

19

180.407(a)

Transporting HM in a specification tank with expired inspections/tests

588

0.3%

7

20

107.601

Failing to register with PHMSA prior to transporting HM

586

0.2%

0

21

172.202(a)(2)

Improper shipping name on shipping paper

550

2%

3

22

172.202(a)(5)

Failing to enter total quantity of HM on shipping paper

508

1%

3

23

172.602(b)

Form and manner of emergency response information

482

0%

3

24

172.202(a)(3)

No or improper Hazard Class or Division number

396

1.5%

3

25

177.834(j)

Manholes and valves not closed or leak free

389

85.4%

4

Top 25 “Other” Violations of 2019

Rank

Code

Description

Violations

OOS

1

392.2RG

State vehicle registration or license plate violation

201,435

0.2%

2

392.2

Operating vehicle in violation of local/state laws

118,819

3.4%

3

390.21(b)

Failing to mark CMV with name and/or USDOT#

80,582

0%

4

392.2W

Size and weight

71,355

0.2%

5

392.2SLLEWA1

Excessive weight: 1-2,500 lbs over on an axle/axle groups

69,412

0.8%

6

392.2MI

Miscellaneous traffic law violation

48,824

0.8%

7

390.21(a)

Vehicle not marked in accordance with regulations

46,756

0.1%

8

392.2DIM

Dimension violation (width/height/length)

33,111

2%

9

392.2FT

State or international fuel tax (IFTA) violation

32,249

0.1%

10

392.2IRP

IRP apportioned tag or registration violation

31,949

0.2%

11

392.2SLLEWA2

Excessive weight: 2,501-5,000 lbs over on an axle/axle groups

30,063

0.7%

12

392.2IN

State insurance violation

24,528

0.2%

13

392.2AU

State operating authority violation

23,900

5.6%

14

392.2UCR

Failure to pay UCR fee

20,213

0.1%

15

392.2SLLS1

Speeding 1-5 MPH over the speed limit

19,295

0%

16

392.2SLLEWA3

Excessive weight: more than 5,000 lbs over on axle/axle groups

18,589

0.7%

17

392.2DL

Miscellaneous driver’s license violation

18,326

13.2%

18

392.2SLLEWG3

Excessive weight: more than 5,000 lbs over on gross weight

16,109

0.3%

19

392.9BAINACTIVE

Operating in inter- or intrastate commerce without an active USDOT number

12,662

31.3%

20

392.2SLLEWG1

Excessive weight: 1-2,500 lbs over on allowable gross weight

12,440

0.5%

21

392.9BANOREG

Operating in interstate commerce without a USDOT registration

11,209

3.2%

22

392.2SLLEWG2

Excessive weight: more than 2,501-5,000 lbs over gross weight

8,851

0.4%

23

392.9a(a)(1)

Operating motor vehicle w/o required operating authority

7,933

90%

24

390.19(b)(2)BIENNIAL

Failure to file biennial FMCSA registration update

7,620

0.5%

25

376.11(d)(1)

Lease or rental agreement not on board leased or rented CMV

5,016

0%

About the author
Daren Hansen - Transportation Safety Editor

Based on his expertise in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, Daren is responsible for writing and editing content for safety-related products, publications, and services for the trucking industry,

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